What is religion - Shintoism and are there Shintoists and their temples in Russia?
Since 56 cc. The imperial court began to supervise the activity of the main Shinto churches; The most important ceremonies began to be performed by the emperor, announced at 7 in. the supreme priest S. The lack of a single canonical literature of S. was compensated by the creation in 78 centuries. collections of ancient historical myths, legends and legends "Kojiki" ("Record about the affairs of antiquity") and "Nihon Seki" ("Annals of Japan"). The penetration of Buddhism from Korea and China into Japan (from the 6 century) gradually eliminated the monopoly position of S. In the heyday of Japanese feudalism (1016 centuries), Buddhism played a predominant role in the religious life of the country, many Japanese began to profess two religions (for example, marriages, the birth of a child, local holidays were usually celebrated in the Shinto temple, and the memorial-funerary cult was performed mainly according to the rules of Buddhism).
In 1718 cc. has developed its activities so-called. "historical school" (M. Kamo, N. Motori, etc.), which set as its goal to strengthen S., to revive the cult and the fullness of the power of the emperor. After the 186768 revolution and until the end of 1945, S. enjoyed along with Buddhism the patronage of the emperor and the government. Regular visits to Shinto and Buddhist temples were imposed on schoolchildren and employees of state institutions. During the 2 World War 193945, the Japanese military broadly used S. to stir up chauvinistic and militaristic sentiments, unquestioning submission to the emperor and all who speak on his behalf. The defeat of imperialist Japan undermined S.'s prestige; in December 1945 Shinto institutions were separated from the state, part of Shinto literature was banned, the priests lost their former official statute. 1 January 1946 Japanese emperor publicly abandoned his "divine" origin. However, in subsequent years, S. gradually began to restore his influence and somewhat modernized his theory. In December 1966, the government decided to restore the former "day of the founding of the empire" of the Kigansetsu (11 February) as a national holiday, when, according to Shinto myths, Jimmu in 660 BC, e. entered the throne. The democratic forces of the country are repulsing the attempts of the ruling circles to use S. again to stir up chauvinism.
LIT. : Latyshev IA, On the role of religion in the political life of Japan, in the collection: Contemporary Japan, Moscow, 1964; Svetlov G. Ye., Religion and Politics. On social and religious movements in modern Japan, "Problems of the Far East", 1974, 2; Gundert W., Japanische Religionsge-schichte, Tokyo, 1935.