Vaccine against smallpox - indications and procedure for use

Vaccine against smallpox - indications and procedure for use

Varicella is an infectiousa disease that is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is among the most common and contagious diseases in the world, and therefore a vaccine against smallpox is simply necessary, do not neglect its use.

This disease is transmittedairborne droplets. The susceptibility of the human body to this virus is very high. If a person has not been vaccinated, then in contact with a sick chicken pox, the probability of infection is almost 100%. The vaccine against smallpox can significantly reduce the probability of the disease.

Although this is considered a child's disease, as it is mainly affected by children under 10 years old, adults who are not vaccinated are also at risk of disease.

Manifestations of this disease isthe appearance on the skin of a rash in the form of vesicles, inside which is a transparent liquid, it is the vaccine against smallpox that helps to avoid and significantly reduce the risk of contracting this disease. After a few days, a large number of these vesicles appear, they gradually dry out, and a kind of crust on the human body is formed. In the normal course of the disease, it lasts from 7 to 10 days.

Usually, for most people, the diseasechickenpox ends in complete recovery. In some children, the virus remains in the intervertebral nerve ganglia and is activated after several years, with shingles appearing to prevent such complications, and a vaccine against smallpox is needed.

This complication is usually observedapproximately one out of every fifth child who has had chicken pox. It can occur after 50 years, when there is a natural decrease in overall immunity, especially in people who are HIV-infected.

Possible consequences of the disease

Chicken pox is quite smalldisease, but can be complicated, for example, the occurrence of pneumonia, encephalitis, they have significant consequences and can even lead to death, so the varicella vaccine can save a person's life.

If there is a secondary infection of the vesicles,this threatens the formation of scars on the skin. In children, pneumonia often develops, congenital chickenpox syndrome and perinatal chicken pox are much less likely.

For people who have problems with immunity, the course of this disease passes in severe form, there may be repeated cases of manifestation of herpes zoster.

In children who take steroid homoids and fall ill with chickenpox, it can even have a fatal outcome.

But among the children, the complications that cause death are much less common than in adults, so the smallpox vaccine should be used in early childhood.

Vaccination against varicella can be carried out for all children older than one year (performed once), as well as for children over 13 years old and for adults - twice with an interval of 7-10 weeks.

First of all, the following categories of population should be vaccinated:

- People who suffer from severe chronic diseases;

- patients with acute leukemia;

- people who receive immunosuppressants and radiation therapy;

- patients who are scheduled to undergo organ transplant.

Vaccination can be carried out if there are no symptoms that indicate a lack of cellular immunity, and the level of lymphocytes in the blood should not be lower than 1200 / mm3.

Contraindications

The presence of acute infectious and non-infectiousdisease is a temporary contraindication. Also, vaccination can not be carried out in the presence of severe immunodeficiency. The vaccine is not administered to pregnant and lactating women, as well as to persons who are allergic to the components that make up the vaccine.

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