Gas is one of the states of matter. It does not have a specific volume, filling itself with all the capacity in which it is located. But it has fluidity and density. What are the lightest gases that exist? What are they characterized by?
The name "gas" was invented in the XVII centurybecause of the consonance with the word "chaos". The particles of matter are indeed chaotic. They move in an arbitrary order, changing the trajectory each time they collide with each other. They try to fill all available space.
The molecules of the gas are weakly coupled to each other, indifference from molecules of liquid and solid substances. Most of its species can not be felt with the help of the senses. But gases have other characteristics, for example, temperature, pressure, density.
Their density increases with increasingpressure, and with increasing temperature they expand. The lightest gas is hydrogen, heavy - uranium hexafluoride. Gases are always mixed. If gravitational forces act, then the mixture becomes inhomogeneous. The lungs go up, the heavy ones, on the contrary, go down.
The lightest gases are:
The first three belong to the zero group of the periodic table, we'll talk about them below.
Which gas is the easiest? The answer is obvious - hydrogen. This is the first element of the periodic table, which is 14.4 times lighter than air. It is designated by the letter H, from the Latin name Hydrogenium (giving birth to water). Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe. It is a part of most stars and interstellar matter.
Under normal conditions, hydrogen is absolutely harmlessand non-toxic, does not have a smell of taste and color. Under certain conditions can significantly change the properties. For example, mixing with oxygen, this gas easily explodes.
Can dissolve in platinum, iron, titanium,nickel and ethanol. From the effect of high temperatures it goes into a metallic state. Its molecule is diatomic and has a high rate, which ensures an excellent thermal conductivity of the gas (7 times higher than that of air).
On our planet, hydrogen is mainly inconnections. In its importance and involvement in chemical processes, it is the second after oxygen. Hydrogen is contained in the atmosphere, it is part of water and organic substances in the cells of living organisms.
Oxygen is indicated by the letter O (Oxygenium). It also does not have a smell, taste and color under normal conditions, and is in the gaseous state. Its molecule is often called dioxygen, since it contains two atoms. There is its allotropic form or modification - an ozone gas (O3), consisting of three molecules. It has a blue color and features many characteristics.
Oxygen and hydrogen are the most common andthe lightest gases on Earth. In the bark of our planet, more oxygen, it is approximately 47% of its mass. In the bound state in the water it contains more than 80%.
Gas is an essential elementthe vital activity of plants, animals, humans and many microorganisms. In the human body, it promotes the realization of oxidation-reduction reactions, getting into our lungs with air.
Due to the special properties of oxygen, it is widelyused for medical purposes. With its help eliminate hypoxia, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract, attacks of bronchial asthma. In the food industry, it is used as a packaging gas. In agriculture, oxygen is used to enrich water, while breeding fish.
Like the two previous gases, nitrogen consists of twoatoms, does not have pronounced taste, color and odor. The symbol for its designation is the Latin letter N. Together with phosphorus and arsenic, it belongs to a subgroup of pnictogens. The gas is very inert, for which it was called azote, which is translated from French as "lifeless." The Latin name is Nitrogenium, that is, "giving birth to nitrate".
Nitrogen is contained in nucleic acids,chlorophyll, hemoglobin and proteins, is the main constituent of air. Its content in the humus and the earth's crust, many scientists explain the eruption of volcanoes, which carry it from the mantle of the Earth. In the universe, gas exists on Neptune and Uranus, is part of the solar atmosphere, interstellar space and some nebulae.
A person uses nitrogen mainly in liquid form. It is used in cryotherapy, as a medium for packaging and storing foods. It is considered to be the most effective for extinguishing fires, replacing oxygen and depriving fire of "potpitki." Together with silicon, it forms ceramics. Nitrogen is often used for the synthesis of various compounds, for example, dyes, ammonia, explosives.
Which gas is the easiest? Now you know the answer yourself. The lungs are hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, which belong to the zero group of the periodic system. They are followed by methane (carbon + hydrogen) and carbon monoxide (carbon + oxygen).