Conquering the entire Middle East and China, Genghis Khansent his three tugs, under the command of Subedei and Juchi Khan, to explore the regions lying behind the Caucasus. The Tatar-Mongolian detachment encountered Polovtsian troops there, which were defeated by it. The remnants of the Polovtsians retreated beyond the Dnieper, where they turned to the Russian princes for help.
In the spring of 1223 a large council of princes was assembled,at which the decision was taken to provide military assistance to the Polovtsian khan Kotian. The princes of the remote, northern regions of Russia supported the Polovtsy refused. It was decided to give battle in the Polovtsian land. The result of this decision was the battle of Kalka. United Russian regiments were led by Mstislav of Kiev, Mstislav Udaloy and Mstislav of Chernigov. With the advanced Mongolian detachments, the first battles began immediately after crossing the Dnieper. The Mongols did not start fighting and retreated for eight days. When the path of the Russian army was blocked by a small river Kalka, a military council was organized, during which the leaders disagreed. Mstislav of Kiev argued about the need for defense, and Mstislav Udaloy sought to fight.
The battle of Kalka began on May 31, 1223. Prince Mstislav Udaloy, after examining the Mongol camp, decided that he and one would cope with the enemy. Initially, the course of the battle unfolded in the direction of the Russians, but the Mongols inflicted the main blow not in the center, where the Galician prince and his retinue stood, but on the left Polovtsian wing. Nomads, unable to withstand a powerful onslaught, began to retreat indiscriminately. Running Polovtsian cavalry confused the ranks of Russian militia, ready for action, which the Mongols immediately began to oppress. The situation could still save the prince of Kiev, but driven by insult to the Galician prince, he did not strike the flank of the Tatars. Russian troops outnumbered the Mongol forces, but the fragmentation of the detachments and the disgraceful flight of the Polovtsians led to a crushing defeat of Rus.
Mstislav of Kiev became stronger on the hill, where infor three days successfully reflected all the attacks of the Tatar troops. Then the Mongols went to the trick, the leader of the brodlocks Ploskina kissed the cross in front of the prince of Kiev, assuring him that the Tatars would let everyone go home if they lay down their arms. Surrendering, Mstislav surrendered, but the Mongols did not keep their word. All simple soldiers were taken into slavery, and princes and military commanders were put under the flooring, which they sat down to feast, noting the victory. The battle of Kalka was over within three days.
Mongolian troops tried to continuethe offensive on the lands of the Chernigov principality, but, confronted with the first fortified city of Novgorod Seversky, retreated back to the steppes. Thus, the battle of Kalka allowed the Mongols to conduct a thorough reconnaissance battle. They appreciated the Russian army, but in their report to Genghis Khan the absence of unity in the Russian princes was especially noted. During the invasion of Khan Batu into Russia in 1239, the fragmentation of Russia into principalities was widely used by the Mongols.
The battle on the Kalka River showed whatresult in inconsistency of actions. The Russian troops suffered huge losses, no more than a tenth of the warriors returned home. Many noble warriors and princes were killed. The battle on Kalka demonstrated to the Russian princes the might of the new enemy, but the lesson was not learned and the invasion of Mongolian-Tatar hordes after 16 years slowed down the development of Russia almost two and a half centuries.