The construction industry, along with the requirements forthe quality of materials and structures used increasingly refers to means of optimizing costs. Moreover, measures to reduce costs are related not only to logistical processes and the immediate erection of buildings. To a large extent, such approaches are conditioned by the requirements for housing. The concept of rational use of fuel and energy reserves implies the introduction of new construction methods, which are largely determined by the materials. Against this background, the use of fixed formwork made of expanded polystyrene can be considered as one of the most effective tools for increasing the energy efficiency and quality of future houses. This technology is successfully practiced in North American and European countries, which in itself is a confirmation of its merits.
In the formwork device, specialThe blocks from which the enclosing structure is constructed. In the future, it is poured with concrete, and overlaps are carried out according to the principles of building a monolithic reinforced concrete foundation. It is important to note that blocks of non-removable formwork made of expanded polystyrene provide several functions at once. In addition to physical support, they act as a noise and heat insulator. Also there is an opportunity for engineering communications through the holes of the blocks. Thus, it is safe and reliable to provide wiring for electric lighting.
In the process of one operation, the erectionreinforced concrete monolithic wall, which is warmed to the sides with expanded polystyrene. If we talk about the reliability and durability of the entire building, then these characteristics are largely dependent on the points of connection of blocks and adjacent formwork elements. Separately it is worth noting the variety of elements of expanded polystyrene. They are sometimes compared to the designer, since the parts have different shapes and sizes.
As in other ways of erection of formwork,work begins with the preparation of the site. It must be cleared, and, if necessary, a deepening is performed. Further it is important to note one feature of the installation of a fixed formwork - it can be placed only on a monolithic reinforced concrete base. Then comes the reinforcement, which is performed in accordance with the design decision. In turn, the thickness of the base depends on the results of geodetic studies. Also in the device of fixed forms from expanded polystyrene it is important to calculate the load on the foundation from the very construction of the future house. All elements of the formwork are plastered, and joints are sealed with mortar. It is important to consider that the blocks should be isolated from direct contact with waterproofing. However, this does not apply to all materials, but only to those that contain oil products.
Installation of elements that form a non-removable wallformwork, is performed on a pre-prepared basis. To this stage, a waterproofing layer must be laid and a monolithic reinforced concrete casing is made. The most difficult is the work on objects where there are columns of walls that require additional reinforcement. The use of quality anchors makes it possible to provide a sufficient margin of safety, which will have a permanent formwork made of expanded polystyrene. With your own hands, you can also perform wall reinforcement. But before that you should determine the technique of concreting. As a rule, for such walls, concrete with a strength maximum of not less than 200 kg / cm2. Also, gravel is used for the mixture, the fraction of which is about 1.2 cm. To make the solution have sufficient characteristics of water impermeability, plasticizers are added to it.
Before you start concreting, you shouldclearly identify the placement of doorways and window openings. They need to be blocked with special blocks, laying the last "dry". It is worth noting that each subsequent stage determines what will be a permanent formwork for a foundation of expanded polystyrene in the subsequent stage of formation. Therefore, in order to avoid inconsistencies in the process of further editing, it is necessary to calculate all the actions in advance. The opening is particularly relevant, since they require an accurate calculation.
Internal horizontal surfaces followreinforce with vertical supports. After concreting they can be removed. With arched openings should be done differently. For them, usually cut out niches directly in the wall blocks. In this case, it is necessary to reinforce the bottom surface with a metal plate. In the same places, it is possible to provide a laying of heaters - this will increase the thermal insulation properties, which will receive a permanent formwork made of expanded polystyrene. Construction after concreting provides for the construction of a roof. It is erected in accordance with the project with the help of anchors and roofing material.
Usually for facing apply plaster ordecorative brick. In the first case, it is necessary to apply layers with a thickness of not more than 2.5 cm, and, if necessary, it is possible to strengthen the coating by reinforcement. For this purpose, a mesh-netting or a fiberglass-based material is used. The most important thing is to ensure sufficient coupling with the blocks, since poor adhesion can spoil all work. It is also common to cover the walls of fixed walls from expanded polystyrene with clinker bricks and tiles. In this case, it is necessary to provide reinforcement of the masonry with a wire every 5 rows.
Blocks of expanded polystyrene have a wide spectrumqualities that determine the expediency of their use in the formwork. First of all, it is strength and moisture resistance. Even after years of operation, the load and the impact of moisture do not lead to the destruction of the structure. At the same time, experts note the benefits of geometry, which has a permanent formwork made of expanded polystyrene. With your hands, you can form almost ideal surfaces, which will facilitate the finishing activities. As a rule, expanded polystyrene does not require additional leveling and can immediately be used for finishing lining. However, there are disadvantages to this technology. They are reduced to two features of the material. First, it is an artificial origin, because of which the harmful influence on the atmosphere is not excluded. Secondly, any structural changes in the constructed house will involve intervention in the concrete base. Accordingly, it is necessary to think in advance of the architectural characteristics and design of the structure.
Basically, the technology is used in the constructionpublic buildings, shops, centers and warehouses. Also similar constructions can be used as a superstructure on the constructed objects. The advantages of this technique were appreciated by developers of individual objects, that's why private houses from fixed formwork made of expanded polystyrene ceased to be a rarity. For example, country cottages of this type are gaining popularity due to the rapid construction, a small mass of construction and the possibility of adding buildings to the attic.
Advantages of using expanded polystyreneare manifested during the construction phase. Specialists point out the wide possibilities of architectural design, ease of handling of blocks, as well as availability in processing. In practice, the exploitation of such buildings also has advantages in the form of good thermal insulation. However, the disadvantages of a fixed formwork made of expanded polystyrene are no less significant. The reviews emphasize the need for effective ventilation. The fact is that the structure of the blocks is characterized by an almost complete lack of the ability to pass air. Accordingly, the walls do not "breathe", so you need to think in advance about the ventilation systems.
Most modern building technologiesare positioned as economical, energy-saving and high-quality in terms of the characteristics of the result obtained. In this regard, the installation of fixed formwork made of expanded polystyrene undoubtedly has a number of competitive advantages. Among them, a small mass of blocks, affordability, wide use in projects of different levels and scale. At the same time, the houses are durable, economical in content and functional. Nevertheless, when choosing this method of building the foundation of a building, it is necessary to take into account the impossibility or, at least, the inexpediency of technical modernization or reconstruction of the object.