Melanoma

Melanoma

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Melanoma- cancer of the skin, retina, brain, which manifests itself in the form of a malignant tumor on the skin or mucous membrane. Melanoma develops from specific pigment cells - melanocytes.

A malignant tumor can develop from an existing mole in 30% of cases, or form on the normal surface of the skin. Melanoma most often appears on the chest in men and on the legs and chest in women. According to statistics, melanoma is 2 times more common in women.

Melanoma is the most aggressive of all existing malignant tumors. Over a short period of time, melanoma immediately affects and destroys skin layers, and the tumor spreads to other organs through the blood vessels. When melanoma is very high percentage of death.

Causes of Melanoma and Risk Factors

  • damage to DNA cells by the environment;
  • genetic and genetic predisposition;
  • a large number of benign formations - nevi (moles) - on the skin;
  • immunosuppression - depression of the body's immune system;
  • excessive exposure of the skin to ultraviolet rays (insolation);
  • sunburn;
  • fair skin and hair, freckles;
  • gender sign - women are more at risk of developing a malignant tumor;
  • hereditary disease xeroderma pigment;
  • history of melanoma.

Symptoms of Melanoma

Often patients turn to doctors for help too late, when it is very difficult or impossible to stop the damage to a malignant tumor of the organs. This is because dangerous pigment changes are mistaken for a normal mole. Therefore, you should know the characteristics and symptoms of melanoma:

  • A birthmark changes its color to gray, black, red or another color.
  • a mole increases in size greater than 9 mm in diameter;
  • irregular edges, asymmetric shape of the birthmark;
  • bleeding moles;
  • severe malaise;
  • weakness and causeless weight loss;
  • pain in muscles and bones;
  • rapid deterioration of vision.

Diagnosis of Melanoma

An oncologist is engaged in the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient is prescribed histological examination. To do this, skin formation or excised, or collect live cell moles - a biopsy.

I also prescribe for the diagnosis of a malignant tumor:

  • ultrasound (ultrasound);
  • computed tomography (CT) of the brain, lungs, liver, bones and lymph nodes;
  • scintigraphy.

Melanoma treatment

Melanoma is treated with surgery:

  • in the first and second stages of the disease, melanoma is excised with the obligatory capture of healthy tissues;
  • in the later stages of development of melanoma, radiation and chemotherapy are prescribed.
Melanoma images, pictures

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