The Kazan Cathedral on Red Square is a small, but very memorable building. Find out details about its erection further in the article.
Kazan Cathedral in Moscow repeatedlyrebuilt since its construction. In 1625 a wooden church was built on this site for the money of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The name she received by the name of the miraculous Kazan Icon of the Mother of God.
The fire of 1635 destroyed the church, and soon herreplaced the stone cathedral, built by the Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov. The following year, the temple was consecrated by Patriarch Joseph. Gradually it becomes one of the most important places of worship. In 1812, during the war with Napoleon, Kutuzov received a blessing here. This event made the cathedral the first monument of the Patriotic War.
Kazan Cathedral on Red Square significantly changesits appearance in the period from the XVII to the XIX century. As a result of the rebuilding, the church becomes less visible with other Moscow cathedrals and churches. In 1925 the reconstruction of the cult construction begins. The original view returns to the temple. However, the renovated cathedral did not last long. In 1936 the Soviet government decided to demolish it. The temple did not match the purpose of the main square of the state - the holding of solemn events.
Instead of a cathedral in the square, there was a pavilion,dedicated to the International and the public toilet. In 1990, the toilet was closed, and the construction of the temple began again. The new Kazan Cathedral (photo below) repeated features of the previous one. The previous view was recreated with the help of drawings and measurements made by Peter Baranovsky before the demolition of the temple.
The acquisition of the icon dates back to 1579, whena strong fire turned the part of Kazan and the Kazan Kremlin into ruins. Sagittarius Daniil Onuchin, whose housing was badly damaged by the fire, immediately began building a new house, and found an icon of the Mother of God under a layer of ashes.
According to the legend, the Theotokos appeared three times in a dreamthe ten-year-old daughter of an archer. The Mother of God asked the girl to find the hidden icon. At first, no one believed the child, but after going to the specified place, Daniel found a sacred image wrapped in cloth. Soon rumors of miraculous healings dispersed throughout the city, thanks to the icon.
The icon of Kazan for a long time served as a symbolprotection and patronage for Russian soldiers. Before the Battle of Poltava, Tsar Peter I prayed for her victory, during the Russo-French War - Mikhail Kutuzov. During the war with the Poles, Russian troops carried miracle-working icons with them, and on the successful end of the battle, a church on Red Square was promised to be built in honor of the Kazan Mother of God.
Initially, the stone church had the features of typical architectural structures of the late 14th century. A small, bespolpny cathedral repeated the outlines of the Rubtsovskaya church of the Virgin's Protection and the cathedral in the Donskoy monastery.
Unlike similar churches, Kazan Cathedral on theRed Square was devoid of symmetry. The composition was disturbed by the fact that the chapel was only on one side. Later, the cathedral is joined by another chapel in honor of the saints Guria and Varsonofia. A tented bell tower appears - one of the first of its kind in Moscow. Later it is replaced first two-and then three-tiered bell tower.
At the top of the temple in checkerboard arrangementkokoshniki. Small and large were placed in turn, giving the temple a toy and solemn appearance. In the second half of the XIX century, architect Nikolai Kozlovsky took up the re-design of the facade. The temple acquired a classic look, losing its distinctive features. Many parishioners were outraged by such a transformation of the shrine, and Metropolitan Leonty even compared it to a typical rural church.
Thanks to the architect Baranovsky, who savedand has restored not one Russian temple, we can observe the cathedral of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God almost in its original form. This is a square one-headed structure in plan, executed in red and white colors. The top of the temple is decorated with kokoshniki. The main dome of the temple is covered with gold. From three there are galleries leading to the bell tower. Alternating small and large kokoshniki create the effect of volume and pattern of the composition.
Kazan Cathedral is located on Red Square,opposite the State Historical Museum, on Nikolskaya Street, 3. Near to it there are three metro stations: "Revolution Square", "Okhotny Ryad", "Teatralnaya". The entrance to the temple is located on the side of Red Square.
The cathedral is open daily from 8 am to 8 pm. On holidays and on Sundays from 7 to 10 am the church services are performed.
Kazan Cathedral on Red Square was firsterected in 1625. Since that time, it has been destroyed several times, and has experienced numerous reconstructions, each time changing its appearance. The newly rebuilt cathedral in 1990 is now a monument of Russian history and architecture, testifying to important historical events of the country.