Diphtheria is a life-threatening disease to which children are extremely susceptible.
Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets or households. The causative agent of the disease - diphtheria bacillus, stable in the external environment.
Important nuance: Diphtheria bacteria persist in droplets of saliva, on toys and door handles for up to 15 days, survive in water and milk for up to 6–20 days, die during boiling for 1 minute, in 10% hydrogen peroxide solution - after 3 minutes.
A diphtheria bacillus secretes a toxin that enters the bloodstream and infects various organs. Most often, the heart, nervous system and kidneys are hit.
The incubation period for diphtheria is from 2 to 10 days. Basically, diphtheria manifests itself in the form of a sore throat, during which there are films in the throat that make it difficult to breathe.
In unvaccinated patients, the course of the disease is predominantly severe, the disease is accompanied by high fever, inflammation of the throat and respiratory tract.
In the case of a toxic form of diphtheria, the patient develops swelling of the face, neck, and mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, due to which a person cannot breathe.
Even despite the timely treatment of this disease die 20% of patients.
Diphtheria in children often occurs in a severe combined form with various complications. Vaccination against diphtheria - prevents the development of the disease, and is also an effective way to combat complications.
Normally, the first diphtheria vaccine is given to a child aged 2 months. In the subsequent revaccination is carried out according to the following schedule:
According to this schedule, the required level of antibodies will arise in the baby’s body, which will protect the child from the disease.
Subsequently, diphtheria vaccination is carried out 1 time in 10 years - in 16 and 26 years.