Congenital syphilis- This is syphilis, which is transmitted to the unborn child by transplacental through mother's blood. Congenital syphilis is early and late.
Early congenital syphilis includes fetal syphilis, infant syphilis, and early childhood syphilis.
Late congenital syphilis is revealed traditionally after 15–16 years, and until then does not manifest itself. However, sometimes the symptoms of late congenital syphilis appear, starting with 30% of its year of life.
Fetal syphilis occurs around the 5th month of pregnancy, when pale treponema penetrates the placenta and actively reproduces inside the body of the fetus.
Fetal syphilis affects literally all the internal organs, brain and bone system of the fetus, so the chances of surviving the fetus are very low. Usually fetal syphilis ends with its death on the 6th-7th lunar month of pregnancy or the premature birth of a dead baby.
In the absence or inadequacy of treatment, syphilis can be passed on to offspring, and moreover, only by the mother.A man infects a woman “before” or during pregnancy, and then a woman who is sick with syphilis infects a fetus.
Depending on the age of the mother’s disease, babies born in the period of babies have or are absent at first with signs of congenital syphilis, however, in the subsequent case, it will nevertheless appear, but somewhat later.
Signs of early congenital syphilis
The first signs of early congenital syphilis may appear as early as a month after the birth of a baby. These include: wrinkled face, deep-down eyes (“old children”), painful bone changes, in connection with which children cry a lot. On the skin and its folds are found all sorts of multiple rashes from spots to bubbles.
Typical is the presence on the lips and within the mouth (as a result of almost constant crying and irritation with saliva) painful cracks, which traditionally heal with tender scars of a whitish-pearlescent shade that remain for many years. In addition to the skin, rashes are found on the mucous membranes; they cause especially great anxiety when the mucous membrane of the nose is affected.There are symptoms of the so-called syphilitic rhinitis, it is difficult for the child to breathe through the nose, he does not take the breast well.
In the absence of treatment, the process moves to the cartilages of the nose, eventually leading to their destruction (“saddle nose”).
Changes in the bone in congenital syphilis. Bone tissue is involved in the process - the process of bone formation is disturbed: fractures and fractures of long tubular bones are observed.
Because of the strong pain, the child cannot move his legs, lies motionless. Other bones are also affected, in particular the skull, especially the frontal ones: they prominently protrude, leaving a hollow in the middle of the forehead (“buttock-like skull”).
Headache does not often develop, leading in turn to severe mental illness.
Signs of late congenital syphilis
The first symptoms appear in babies 5-6 years old, most often during puberty. The most typical signs are deformations of the bones of the tibia, expressed in thickening with their curvature curved forward ("saber tibia").
Perforation of hard palate, destruction of the bones of the skull, tooth degeneration are observed: semilunar recesses of the upper permanent teeth, especially both of the front incisors, and some rounding from the sides (“barrel-shaped teeth”).Often there are eye diseases (parenchymal keratitis) and hearing organs - deafness. The above triad of symptoms (tooth degeneration, keratitis and deafness) is a very typical sign of late tertiary syphilis.
In addition, common dystrophies, dementia, seizures and even paralysis are characteristic. In the absence of treatment in such babies, they can transmit the infection to their offspring, that is, to the second generation.