Causes of speech disorders in children

Causes of speech disorders in children

About why children have or, the speech therapist, defectologist Yarosh Tatyana Aleksandrovna tells.

Even in ancient times, the Greek philosopher and physician Hippocrates saw the cause of a number of speech disorders in brain damage. But genuine scientific confirmation of this was given only in 1861, when the French physician Paul Broca showed the presence of a field specifically related to speech in the brain and associated a speech disorder with his defeat.

In 1874 a similar discovery was made by Wernicke: a connection has been establishedof understandingspeech with the safety of a certain part of the brain. Since that time, the connection of speech disorders with changes in certain parts of the cerebral cortex has been proven.

Such pathological changes in the cerebral cortex result from various adverse effects (infections, injuries, intoxication) on the central nervous system of the child and on his body as a whole.

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Types of adverse effects on the nervous system of the child
 

There are intrauterine (perinatal) pathology, damage during childbirth (natal pathology) and exposure to harmful factors after birth (postnatal pathology).

  • Fetal disorders are caused by maternal diseases during pregnancy, medication, radiation, vibration, alcohol intake and smoking. The immunological incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus by the Rh factor, according to the blood group, may play a certain role.
     
  • Generic pathology occurs when protracted or rapid delivery, tight cord entanglement, caesarean section, the wrong position of the fetus.
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Speech disorders are more common in boys.
 

The difference in the development of the right and left (speech) hemispheres of the brain. The left hemisphere performs mainly speech function, and the right - visual-spatial. In boys, the right hemisphere develops faster, and in girls, on the contrary, the left (speech) develops, in connection with which they have earlier periods of speech development.

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The role of education in the development of speech disorders in a child
 

In the occurrence of speech disorders in children, an important role is played by early organic brain lesions, combined with unfavorable conditions for the upbringing and environment of the child in the first years of his life.Of particular importance is the violation of the relationship of the mother with the child in the first years of life.

It is known that normal pre-verbal development in the first year of life, which is important for the formation of speech function, is possible only with adequate interaction of the child with the mother. The basis of the maturation of the speech function is the flow from the outside world of various signals, primarily speech. Their source is an adult who communicates with the child. In this regard, the role of the speech environment and communication is very large, and their insufficiency may be one of the main reasons that disrupt the formation of speech.

For normal speech development of a child, communication should be meaningful, take place against an emotionally positive background and encourage him to respond. It’s not enough for a baby to just hear sounds (radio, TV); first of all, it’s necessary to communicate directly with adults.

The development of the child’s speech is delayed and disturbed under adverse external conditions: the absence of an emotionally positive environment, a super-noisy environment. Speech is developed through imitation, so some speech disorders (lack of pronunciation, stuttering, speech tempo disturbance) can be based on imitation of family members.Speech disorders often occur in case of various mental traumas (fear, separation from loved ones, a traumatic situation in the family). Speech disorders also occur under the influence of the general physical weakness of the child, prematurity, rickets, various metabolic disorders.

Hereditary factors are also of some importance.Hereditary burden among stutterers is 17.5%.The role of hereditary factors in the occurrence of violations of writing (dysgraphia) and reading (dyslexia) is noted.

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Critical periods in speech development
 

There are critical periods in the development of speech function, which are manifested in the increased vulnerability of the nervous mechanisms of speech activity.

The first critical period of speech development is 1-2 years of life.

At this age, the most intensive development of cortical speech zones occurs, in particular, Broca's zones. Any adverse factors can affect the development of the child's speech.

The second critical period of speech development is 3 years.

During this period, coherent speech is intensively developed. The resulting misalignment in the work of the central nervous system leads to a change in behavior (stubbornness, negativism).In this regard, the vulnerability of the nervous system is greatly increased, due to unfavorable factors, stuttering and lagging speech development may occur.

The third critical period of speech development is 6-7 years.

The beginning of the development of writing. The load on the central nervous system increases. Any violations of speech function that a child has during these critical periods are most pronounced, and, in addition, new disorders can occur.

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In the occurrence of speech disorders a large role belongs to the improperly formed structure of the speech apparatus. These are abnormalities of the palate (high, flat, split), defects in the development of the upper and lower jaw (overbite), shortened frenulum of the tongue and upper lip.

In conclusion, we note such an adverse factor as pedagogical and social neglect.

Speech is a social phenomenon, it develops only under the influence of the environment of the child. If the child does not receive sufficient verbal communication, then the development of his own speech will lag behind. Parents are happy if the child is engaged in toys for a long time and does not interfere with them.But at the same time, they should not forget to read the kid every day, look at the picture and ask questions about it, learn a little rhyme or rhyme. If the child is clearly lagging behind his peers in the development of speech, then it is necessary to consult a speech therapist and a neuropathologist not later than three years.

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  • Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children

    Causes of speech disorders in children