but, properly, a tunnel or tunnel?
- TUNNEL (English tunnel, in connection with the English pronunciation often used as a TUNNEL, but rightly TONNEL), an underground (underwater) structure for traffic, water movement, communication laying, etc. The main types of tunnels (by designation): road, rail , tunnels of subways, navigable tunnels for different types of transport (in one section), hydrotechnical, municipal, special purpose (included in various underground structures, including military ones), parts of overpasses on the me those crossing the city roads.
On the location of the tunnels are divided into: flat, or urban, underwater and mountain.
Depending on the location and destination, the way of designing and laying the route is chosen. Geological, climatic and topographical conditions are necessarily taken into account. Determine the depth of the deposit, the length, location in the plan and profile, the type of cross section.
The main ways of producing tunnel works: mining, requiring before the erection of lining fastening the production of temporary support, and shield with the use of a passage shield.
Elements of tunnels
To build a tunnel in the earth, an artificial cavity is created in the earth's crust. Its creation begins with the installation of the tunnel, which is fixed (with the exception of the rare cases of tunneling in strong rock). Temporary support is gradually replaced by permanent lining (monolithic or prefabricated). The lining is a structural element that forms the inner surface of the tunnel. It is the lining directly perceives the rock pressure and provides protection from groundwater and quicksand.
Portal entrance part of the tunnel. Provides stability of lateral and frontal slopes. The ramp is a reinforced concrete structure of a trough-shaped section, designed to protect against flooding of entrance areas.
Before proceeding with construction, it is necessary to study the geological structure of the territory through which the tunnel will pass. From the type of soil depends on the choice of appropriate methods of construction. Tunnels in soft ground (earth, clay), in rocks of small and medium density (clayey shales, chalk, sandstone), in hard rock (granite), and also under water are constructed differently.
When laying the longest and deepest tunnels, sometimes they are solved for the construction of the so-called. A pilot tunnel running along the main tunnel. It allows you to compare the results of geological research with the actual structure of the rock. This is an expensive method, however, after the construction of the digging itself is begun, the pilot tunnel can be expanded and used for technical needs or as a drainage channel (in submarine tunnels). For shallow tunnels, an open laying method is used. In the open pit, tunnel structures are being constructed, and then it is covered. With the closed method of laying, tunneling and erection of the lining is carried out through shafts or a portal.
The shield method was developed by the Englishman Marc Brunel (Marc Brunel) in the construction of the London Underground in 1863. With this method, a special board, driven by servomotors (a so-called penetrating shield) is used to gouge out the rock. This device is a combination of a tubular casing a few meters long, with a special knife in the front. The knife cuts into the ground, and the pipe forms a kind of roof, which prevents the earth from shedding.
In tunnels, cut down in hard rocks on the surface of the earth (for example, in the mountains), drilling machines are much more often used. They make holes in which explosives are placed, sufficient for a large explosion of power (for example, nitroglycerin). After the machine is withdrawn, the next charges are dropped. The miners worked out inside the tunnel are crushed by pneumatic hammers and drills.
Submarine tunnels are constructed by means of a tunnel, open technology or large automatic drilling machines. And so on (there are not enough symbols, I'm sorry)
- TUNNELS !!!
- tunnel for trains and cars, and the tunnel in already
- And it was not easier to press abc
- The norms of the modern Russian language allow both forms of this word. At first glance, it seems that if this word is borrowed from the French tunnel, then it seems like it's worth talking to the tunnel. BUT I SAY ONCE AGAIN AND WRITE AS IT IS WHICH YOU WANT!
- tunnel noun
Construction in the form of a corridor along which paths are laid (under the ground, in the mountains, under some other structure).
- tunnel in the ears
tunnel on the road
- Look, what a cunning! You know yourself, but you ask! It is not good for people to be fooled.
- Both options are correct.