Last week, the Ministry of Environment in the state report "On Environmental Protection" called the cities of Russia with the dirtiest air.
The most dangerous cities for living were Krasnoyarsk, Magnitogorsk and Norilsk. In total, there are 15 most polluted areas in Russia, which, according to environmentalists, are the most unfavorable from the point of view of primarily atmospheric air and waste accumulation.
The black list of the dirtiest cities includes Norilsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Novokuznetsk, Nizhny Tagil, Magnitogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Bratsk, Novocherkassk, Chita, Dzerzhinsk, Mednogorsk and Asbest.
Alas, today Krasnoyarsk people are literally suffocating in emissions. The reason for this is the active work of industrial facilities, factories and vehicles.
Krasnoyarsk, being the center of the East-Siberian economic region, belongs to large industrial and transport cities, its ecological situation is in an extremely tense state.Over the past year, the ecology of this million-plus city has deteriorated even more. As part of a special project "Practical Ecology" in this Siberian city, an analysis of the ecological situation was carried out.
The study of pollution was carried out using air sampling. If in 2014 only 0.7% of these samples had an excess, then in 2017 this figure increased to 2.1% - that is, 3 times. Sounds scary. In the same report, by the way, it says about the increase in the number of cancer patients in the city by about 2.5% per year. And by the end of 2017, this number could reach 373 patients per 100 thousand inhabitants.
The unfavorable state of atmospheric air in the city is determined by the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere, the main source of which, of course, is the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works OJSC. The city of Magnitogorsk, whose town-forming enterprise has become an industrial giant, is constantly included in the priority list of cities in the Russian Federation with the highest level of atmospheric air pollution from benzapiren, nitrogen dioxide, carbon disulfide, and phenol.
This city, which was built by prisoners of the Gulag in the 30s, can be called a place for extreme sports.Norilsk with a population of over 100 thousand people is located in the frosty Siberian Arctic. The maximum temperature in summer can reach 32 ° С, and the minimum in winter - below –50 ° С. The city, whose economic basis is the mining industry, is completely dependent on imported food. The main industry is the mining of precious metals. And precisely because of the mining of metals, Norilsk became one of the most polluted cities in Russia.
Norilsk continues to enter the top three of the dirtiest Russian cities, even despite the fact that after the closure of the Nickel Plant in June 2016, harmful emissions into the atmosphere decreased by a third. This enterprise, located in the historic center, was the oldest asset of Norilsk Nickel, and accounted for 25% of all the pollution in the region. The company annually emitted into the air about 400,000 tons of sulfur dioxide. This made Norilsk the main polluter of the Arctic and one of the ten dirtiest cities on the planet according to Greenpeace.
Ecology in Lipetsk leaves much to be desired. Much of the residential development is located on the right bank of the Voronezh River, while the building of the metallurgical plant is located on the gentle left bank.Due to the wind rose with a predominance of northeastern winds, some areas of the city experience discomfort.
According to the results of official data, over 350 thousand tons of pollutants enter the atmosphere every year. This is more than 700 kilograms per capita. Indicators for heavy metals, dioxins, benzapyrene and phenol have the highest excess. The main source of pollution is the Novolipetsk Metallurgical Combine.
Cherepovets is a city with a developed industrial production, which, of course, directly affects the ecological situation. And here it is impossible to single out an area that would be relatively free from industrial pollution — absolutely all areas feel the influence of industrial zones.
Residents of the city often feel the unpleasant smell of industrial emissions, more often than others, clean their windows of black bloom and observe the colorful smoke that comes out of the pipes of the factories every day. In the spring and autumn, the ecological situation in the city deteriorates somewhat, which is associated with weather conditions that reduce the dispersion of harmful components, which contributes to their accumulation in the atmosphere.
This is another industrial Russian city, in the center of which is located a metallurgical plant. It is not surprising that the ecological situation here is characterized as unfavorable: air pollution is especially serious. There are 145 thousand vehicles registered in the city, the gross emissions to the atmosphere amounted to 76.5 thousand tons.
Nizhny Tagil has long been in the list of cities with the most polluted by harmful air substances. The maximum permissible value of benzopyrene in the atmosphere of the city is exceeded by 13 times.
In the past, an abundance of enterprises led to numerous emissions into the atmosphere. Now 58% of air pollution in the city is accounted for by motor transport. In addition to pollution of urban air, problems in the state of the ecology of Omsk and adds a deplorable state of water in the rivers Om and Irtysh.
In industrial Chelyabinsk, a fairly high level of air pollution is recorded. But this situation is complicated by the fact that a third of the year in the city is calm. In hot weather, smog can be observed over Chelyabinsk, which is the result of the activity of the electrode plant,Chelyabinsk TPP, CHEMP and several Chelyabinsk CHP. Power plants account for about 20% of all fixed emissions.
The real threat to the ecology of the city is the deep burial of wastes from hazardous industries and the slime lake (nicknamed “the white sea”) with chemical production wastes.
The main sources of air pollution in the city are the Bratsk aluminum plant, the ferroalloy plant, the heat station and the Bratsk timber industry. In addition, every spring and summer there are regularly forest fires that last from two weeks to four months.
Three years in a row, this city falls into anti-rating. The regional center ranks second in the country after Vladivostok in terms of the number of cars per capita, which is one of the sources of air pollution within the city. In addition, there is the problem of pollution of urban water bodies.
The main environmental pollutant is the Mednogorsk Copper-Sulfur Combine, which emits a large amount of sulfurous anhydride into the air, when it forms sulfuric acid over the soil.
Novocherkassk air is the dirtiest in the region: every year the city consistently falls into the list of places with the most polluted atmosphere. There are frequent night-time emissions, often the wind from the industrial zone blows to the residential.
In the city of Asbest, 25% of the global volume of asbestos-chrysotile is mined. This fibrous mineral, known for its heat resistance and carcinogenic properties, is banned in most European countries. Round the clock in a giant open pit with a length of 12 km, stone flax is mined in Asbest for the production of asbestos-cement pipes, insulation and building materials, half of which are exported to 50 countries. Locals do not believe in the harm of asbestos.
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